Developmental Dynamics DOI 10.1002/dvdy. 24336

Aug 1, 2015

We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of non-human model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e. as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: 1) Human anomalies and variations, non-pentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs other head muscles; 2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage", internalism vs externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; 3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis and peromorphosis; 4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and 5) Patau, Edwards, and Down, Syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations and medical implications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.