Origin, Evolution and Homologies of the Weberian Apparatus: A New Insight
Jun 1, 2009
The Weberian apparatus is essentially a mechanical device improving audition, consisting of a double chain of ossicles joining the air bladder to the inner ear. Despite being one of the most notable complex systems of teleost fishes and the subject of several comparative, developmental and functional studies, there is still much controversy concerning the origin, evolution and homologies of the structures forming this apparatus. In this paper I provide a new insight on these topics, which takes into account the results of recent works on comparative anatomy, paleontology, and ontogeny as well as of a recent extensive phylogenetic analysis including not only numerous otophysan and non-otophysan extant otocephalans but also ostariophysan fossils such as †Chanoides macropoma, †Clupavus maroccanus, †Santanichthys diasii, †Lusitanichthys characiformis, †Sorbininardus apuliensis and †Tischlingerichthys viohli. According to the evidence now available, the Weberian apparatus of otophysans seems to be the outcome of a functional integration of features acquired in basal otocephalans and in basal ostariophysans, which were very likely not directly related with the functioning of this apparatus, and of features acquired in the nodes leading to the Otophysi and to the clade including the four extant otophysan orders, which could well have been the result of a selection directly related to the functioning of the apparatus.